Civiltà = Individualismo

INDIVIDUALISM’S PARADOX The Rule of the Clan: What an Ancient Form of Social Organization Reveals About the Future of Individual Freedom by Mark S. Weiner

Una persona vi spinge, magari accidentalmente, voi cadete e vi rompete un braccio. Che fate?…

… Imagine that one fine morning you are strolling down the sidewalk on your way to work. Suddenly, a young jogger wearing headphones turns the corner, running swiftly, oblivious to the world around him. He crashes into you and as you hit the ground you feel a sharp pain in your arm, which quickly begins to swell. It’s broken. Soon after visiting your doctor, you contact your lawyer. He begins a civil suit against the jogger so that you can be compensated for your injury…

Chiedete i danni? Andate dall’avvocato? In tribunale?

Qualunque cosa facciate agirete in base di principi che solo una società relativamente recente riconosce: siete un individuo e avete dei diritti legati alla vostra incolumità.

Non andrete da vostro zio a chiedere giustizia poiché il principio è riconosciuto da tutti, quindi potete andare in tribunale. Anche il “colpevole” è un individuo, e le accuse per quel che ha fatto non possono essere girate a suo cugino.

La nostra società è individualista, ma si tratta di una conquista strappata con i denti alla storia….

… This individualist focus is fundamental to the law of modern liberal societies. It lies at the core of nations that trace their democratic political heritage to the Enlightenment and their economic roots to the Industrial Revolution—and that hold individual self-fulfillment and personal development as a central moral value…

Guardate alla democrazia: una persona, un voto… individualismo…

… In an election, you cast your vote for yourself alone, rather than for your household, village, or tribe. Doing so would seem absurd—it would contravene the axiomatic principle of “one person, one vote.”…

Guardate alla religione: una persona, un destino. Una persona, un giudizio nell’ Ultimo Giorno.

Se vi sposate sorgono diritti e doveri che riguardano voi e solo voi, non la vostra famiglia…

… When you enter into a marriage, you alone incur its benefits and obligations…

Il nesso tra individualismo e proprietà privata è evidente…

… Such individualism extends as well to the legal issues of property and inheritance. In liberal societies, land need not be owned in common by tribal groups…

***

Il paradosso: riteniamo che l’individuo sia prezioso, che vada difeso contro l’invadenza dello stato. Tuttavia, senza lo stato la cultura dell’individuo non esisterebbe nemmeno…

… All these facts may seem self-evident, perhaps even obvious. But if one looks beneath them, they point to an essential paradox about individual freedom, a paradox that’s illuminated by examining the subject of this book: the rule of the clan…

Esisterebbe al suo posto la legge del clan

… It’s a common and understandable belief that liberty exists only when the state is absent or weak. Many people often imply that individual freedom flourishes in inverse proportion to the strength and scope of government. ..

Chi sono i grandi nemici dello stato? Il libertario Murray Newton Rothbard, va bene. Ma anche Gheddafi

… A deep antipathy to the modern state was a core principle of the United States’ longtime enemy Col. Muammar al-Qaddafi, who sought, in the words of his manifesto The Green Book, “emancipation from the chains of all instruments of government.”…

Oppure Ghandi, che auspicava un’India con poco stato e molte caste…

… Mohandas Gandhi advocated for a stateless society of local self-rule for postcolonial India…

Qui risiede un equivoco sulle origini della libertà: niente stato, niente libertà individuali. E’ chiaro? E’ chiaro ai libertari?…

… Yet, whatever form it takes, the belief that individual freedom exists only when the state is frail misunderstands the source of liberty…

Ripetiamo allora il paradosso

… This is the paradox of individualism. The individual freedom that citizens of liberal societies rightly cherish, even our very concept of the individual, is impossible without a robust state…

Uno stato in salute e un solido individualismo vanno a braccetto.

***

Senza stato il vuoto di potere è riempito da corpi sociali che, la storia ce lo dimostra, hanno ben poco rispetto per il singolo, il quale è destinato a divenire un mero strumento da sacrificare…

… By contrast, in the absence of the state, or when states are weak, the individual becomes engulfed within the collective groups on which people must rely to advance their goals and vindicate their interests. Without the authority of the state, a host of discrete communal associations rush to fill the vacuum of power…

La fiducia – questo bene fondamentale che la società umana si ingegna di fabbricare come puo’ – deriverebbe possibile solo grazie alla parentela, alla famiglia estesa.

***

Ma cos’è la legge dei clan? È la legge che riscontriamo nella storia quando la famiglia estesa diventa il centro del vivere comune…

… First, and most prominently, I mean the legal structures and cultural values of societies organized primarily on the basis of kinship—societies in which extended family membership is vital…

La legge dei clan può essere studiata guardando al nostro passato ma anche al presente…

… Today these societies include many in which the United States and its allies have a major strategic interest, such as Afghanistan, Yemen, Nigeria, and Somalia… These societies possess the outward trappings of a modern state but are founded on informal patronage networks…

L’economia della rendita è centrale nel clan…

… Clannism is the historical echo of tribalism, existing even in the face of economic modernization. It often characterizes rentier societies struggling under the continuing legacy of colonial subordination, as in the Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa, where the nuclear family, with its revolutionary, individuating power, has yet to replace the extended lineage group as the principle framework for kinship or household organization…

L’avvento della famiglia nucleare ha segnato la fine di tutto cio’.

Anche il confucianesimo si fondava sul clan…

…A form of clannism likewise pervades mainland China and other nations whose political development was influenced by Confucianism…

Una cosa è certa: la vita nel clan è contrassegnata in lungo e in largo da pratiche antiliberali

… Third, and most broadly, by the rule of the clan I mean the antiliberal social and legal organizations that tend to grow in the absence of state authority or when the state is weak…

La mentalità del clan perdura nelle società moderne, e non è sempre un male, ne abbiamo continui esempi, dalle mafie alle corporation

… These groups include petty criminal gangs, the Mafia, and international crime syndicates, which look a great deal like clans and in many respects act like them. Today corporate conglomerates and collectivist identity groups have the potential to transform into similar clanlike systems…

Il problema non è il clan in sè, l’uomo ha bisogno di relazioni personali intense, ma quando il clan vuole sostituirsi allo stato anonimo.

Sotto il clan il soggetto è solo “membro”…

… under their legal principles people are valued less as individuals per se than as members of their extended families…

***

Henty Sumner Maine: il viaggio dell’umanità è una transizione dalla società dello status a quella del contratto…

… The founding father of legal history and legal anthropology, Henry Sumner Maine, had an illuminating term for such communities. He called them societies of “Status,” which he contrasted with communities he called societies of “Contract.”… In Maine’s view, the legal development of “progressive societies” follows a path “from Status to Contract.”…

E’ un “viaggio” che possiamo ipotizzare universale, lo riscontriamo in India come in Irlanda

… modern India shared core legal ideas about marriage, property, and dispute resolution with medieval Ireland, as the two societies derived those rules from a common Aryan cultural ancestor….

Ma come si compie questo viaggio della legalità?

Puo’ essere intrapreso attraverso tre vie.

O interpretando diversamente le norme vigenti…

… The first method is legal fictions, ideas that alter the substance of law without changing its letter….

O con l’avvento di nuovi valori etici…

… The second method is equity, the harmonization of existing law to higher bodies of principles external to the law itself, especially transcendent morals…

O attraverso riforme legislative

… The third method is legislation, which changes law through the expressed will…

***

Ma cos’è lo status?..

… By societies of Status, Maine did not mean societies that simply possess a sense of social rank or hierarchy. Instead, he meant those communities in which family groups serve as the primary basis for social organization…

Nella società dello status l’individuo è disprezzato: l’uomo è carne da cannone, la donna fattrice

… the role of women in clan societies is to physically reproduce the clan itself and this role shapes all the legal rules affecting them…

La società del contratto è la società della libera scelta

… By societies of Contract, Maine meant societies in which law is oriented toward the individual rather than the group, and in which individual choice serves as the central value of the legal order. In such societies, individuals are no longer legally subordinated to their extended families. Instead, the legal order is directed toward fostering the ability of individuals to chart their own life…

La società del contratto emerge con la comparsa sulla scena dello stato.

Ma questa transizione è un progresso o un regresso? Gli studiosi si dividono…

… Whereas Maine viewed a liberal society of Contract as an evolutionary endpoint, many of his contemporaries believed that Western nations had one more grand step to take—one that, ironically, would return society to its communal and egalitarian clan past….

I marxisti sembrerebbero inclini al rimpianto (come gli egalitaristi in generale)…

… As outlined by Friedrich Engels in The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State (1884), the goal of a communist revolution was to re-create the principles and conditions of clan society in a higher historical form…

Altro esempio di chi rimpiange: gli islamisti

… another recent alternative to liberal society, political Islamism, makes an appeal to egalitarianism and social justice that is every bit as powerful as Marxism’s… the global umma as one large clan…

Chi parla molto di “solidarietà” e “legami forti”, in genere rimpiange.

***

Ma chi non rimpiange deve stare all’erta: il clan puo’ tornare in un attimo (è la nostra natura)…

… the comfortable social and political conditions in which we live predispose liberals to neglect the rule of the clan’s most distinctive and important features… I believe that if liberals fail to take to heart the lessons of the rule of the clan, particularly the lesson of individualism’s paradox, our future will be a deeply troubling, literally “postmodern” version of our own clan past…

In economia, individualismo ha voluto dire più ricchezza

… In the realm of government, economic growth required the intervention of energetic states dedicated not only to expanding economic liberty, most importantly by making it easy for entrepreneurs to charter limited liability corporations, but also to furthering collective social development, for instance by policing public safety, advancing public health, and promoting public works…

In politica ha voluto dire liberal democrazia

… In the realm of politics, similarly, the era witnessed the formal abolition of serfdom and slavery, while the gradual expansion of the franchise enlarged the influence of ordinary people in public life, making government more responsive to the common good…

Culturalmente ha voluto dire soggettivismo e centro sulla realizzazione personale…

… Finally, in the realm of culture, popular and elite values alike were reoriented toward the individualist ideals of personal growth and psychological and emotional self-fulfillment…

***

Tesi: dove recede lo stato, avanza il clan

… As various institutions rush to fill the power vacuum left by the state’s decline, we will be overtaken by a new form of the rule of the clan….

Uno scenario dello scivolamento possibile

… individuals begin to cluster into groups to protect themselves and assert their interests. Over time, these groups consolidate their power, becoming more important to the social order than the individuals the liberal state once nurtured….

Contro Bauman (e Tocqueville). Pericolo di “atomismo”? No, il vero pericolo è il ritorno del clan…

… In contemporary political discourse, one frequently encounters the warning of Alexis de Tocqueville, writing in Democracy in America (1835, 1840), that in the United States each person is “throw[n] … back forever upon himself alone” and that democracy may ultimately isolate the individual “entirely within the solitude of his own heart.”… But from a legal and political perspective, rather than a cultural and moral one, the major threat to liberal societies is precisely the opposite…

Il fascino del clan? La decentralizzazione. Per questo seduce anche molti liberali…

… I begin in part II by describing the highly decentralized constitutional structure of the rule of the clan, in which legal and political power reside not in a public authority but rather in numerous kinship groups…

Su cosa si fonda un clan? Onore, vergogna, sangue, riti, consuetudini

… understand the rule of the clan’s distinctive network of informal legal institutions: its values of group honor and shame, its jurisprudence of customary law, and the threat of blood feud. Group honor, custom, and feud provide the cultural connective tissue of the rule of the clan’s decentralized constitutional structure…

Come convertire le società claniche in società del contratto? Informare, rendere percepibili le alternative. E poi creare una classe media: una classe di persone che puo’ arricchirsi aprendo la società…

… I argue that reformers seeking to advance liberal values in clan societies can encourage the growth of a common, public life by looking to mechanisms that work both “from below” and “from above.” I suggest, in particular, that liberals should encourage the spread of information and social media technologies in clan societies, predicting that in time social media will lessen the practical and personal importance of kin identity in much the same way as monotheistic religion did in the European Middle Ages. I also suggest that liberals should promote the development of the middle-class professions, which are the modern parallel to the Germanic ruling class within which a public identity in Anglo-Saxon England first developed…

Spesso le nostalgie claniche sono vissute all’ombra dei valori liberali. Prendi la figura dell’eroe, è indubbio che richiamo l’individualismo. Vengono in mente certe saghe di Tolkien. Eppure l’eroe è un parto delle società claniche, ovvero di società che negano l’individuo…

… I also argue that the valorization of the clan in cultural memory is often a sign not of an atavistic regression but instead of liberalism’s legal advent…

Limitare lo stato, decentralizzare i poteri… a volte il clan torna sulle ali di modernismo…

… I argue that the rule of the clan will always haunt modern liberal society as a postmodern threat: the threat of state erosion, constitutional decentralization…

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