Resilience – Messy: How to Be Creative and Resilient in a Tidy-Minded World
Punti chiave: Cio’ che fa male fa anche bene (se produce diversità) – Diversificare il rischio produce resilienza – L’impulso burocratico a uniformare – Una triste notizia: noi confondiamo povertà e disordine – Altra triste notizia: confondiamo diversità e disordine –
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,061
Two centuries after Johann Gottlieb Beckmann had been tidying up messy ancient woodlands into neat rows of Norwegian spruce, the German forests were dying.
Note:LO SPORCO SEGRETO DEI BOTANICI
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,070
merely removing fallen logs and dead trees would result in the loss of almost a third of non-bird wildlife species in a forest…over time they altered the ecology of the forest and exposed the trees to fungi
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,078
None of this was anticipated by the foresters of yesteryear.
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,086
In nature, mess often indicates health – and not only in the forest.
Note:SALUTE E COMPLESSITÀ
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,088
stomach ulcers, which were thought to be caused by stress.
Note:ULCERE E STRESS
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,091
ulcers weren’t caused by stress at all, but by a corkscrew-shaped bacteria, Helicobacter pylori.
Note:L’IDEA DI MARSHALL
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,093
Barry Marshall drank a flask full of H. pylori…Finally Marshall and Warren had the attention of the medical profession….
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,099
Blaser found that Americans who had H. pylori in their guts were far less likely to suffer from asthma…H. pylori helps prevent obesity by regulating a stomach enzyme called ghrelin…
Note:COLPO DI SCENA: IL BATTERIO FA BENE
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,106
The view used to be that the human body was under assault from bacteria, and that antibiotics were an unalloyed good, albeit one to be used with care lest bacteria evolve resistance.
Note:ORTODOSSIA SUI BATTERI
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,110
Some bacteria are dangerous, some are harmless passengers and some are beneficial. Some, such as H. pylori, can be dangerous or beneficial depending on the situation.
Note:AMICI O NEMICI?
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,112
Martin Blaser has become one of the leading champions of the view that our bacterial guests are starting to become less diverse and that this thinning of the microbiome is doing us harm.
Note:L’ALLARME DI BLASER
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,114
it was easier to stay slim in the 1980s…people today seem to be heavier than their forebears, even when they eat the same and are equally active….
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,116
people today have denuded gut bacteria
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,118
Lactobacillus sakei – another of those bacteria we have cluttering up our bodies – appears to prevent sinusitis
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,121
The most disgusting example concerns the treatment of Clostridium difficile gut infections…C. difficile itself is increasingly resistant to antibiotics. But now a near-miraculous cure has been discovered…The treatment in question was faecal microbiota transplantation – which is a polite way to describe blending a healthy person’s excrement with a little salty water, and injecting the mixture into the patient via the obvious orifice….
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,136
Why, then, are our microbes going missing? The most obvious culprit is the routine use of antibiotics.
Note:IL DANNO DEGLI ANTIBIOTICI
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,142
A third explanation is the rise of the caesarean section, which is now how almost a third of American babies come into the world. Babies collect a rich broth of microbes from their mothers, but this transfer does not occur in the womb as one might expect. Instead, they are smeared with bacteria as they pass through the birth canal
Note:COLPA DEL CESAREO?
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,153
It is worth acknowledging that these ideas have already become a fad – a great deal of nonsense is now being talked by quacks and purveyors of probiotic yoghurt aiming to promote a ‘healthy microbiome’.
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,159
if you try to control a complex system, suppressing or tidying away the parts that seem unimportant, you are likely to discover that those parts turn out to be very important indeed.
Note:CONSEGUENZE NON INTENZIONALI
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,162
Jane Jacobs, urban writer and campaigner, made the case for neighbourhood diversity in The Death and Life of Great American Cities…Diversity at street level was made possible by a mix of offices and homes, stores and workshops. It was also made possible, Jacobs argued, by a mix of old and new buildings….
Note:LA DIVERSITÀ NELLE CITTÀ
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,185
It is preferable, she argued, to have an inefficient hodgepodge of different industries than to specialise in a single industry, however efficient that might seem in the short term. One of her favourite examples was the unromantic mess of Birmingham, the second-largest city in England. Birmingham is famous for making nothing in particular
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,191
When Jane Jacobs was admiring Birmingham in the early 1960s, her view seemed odd. Detroit, the quintessential one-industry town, was booming…specialised cities were fragile….
Note:DETROIT VS BRMNGHAM
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,196
AnnaLee Saxenian, an economist and political scientist, published a study comparing two famous technology clusters, Silicon Valley and Boston’s Route 128.
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,200
the technology companies of Route 128 – companies such as Wang, Raytheon and Sun – kept themselves in tidy silos, specialising in narrow fields of excellence. The fledgling companies of Silicon Valley sprawled into each other, engineers constantly gossiping with one another
Note:BOSTON ROUTE: ORDINE E STANDARD
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,210
Hidalgo has discovered that there is a strong correlation between being a diversified economy, a complex economy and a rich economy…highly diversified economies also tend to be rich…
Note:RICCHEZZA E DIVERSITÀ
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,220
Diverse economies, like diverse German forests, are more resilient.
Note:CAPACITÀ DI RISPONDERE ALLE CRISI
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,227
The old proverb ‘jack of all trades, master of none’…Perhaps that is true of an individual; it’s not true of a city or a country….
Note:PROVERBI VALIDI PER LE PERSONE MA NON PERLE COMUNITÀ
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,234
If people prefer to live near similar people – perhaps people of the same race, class, ethnicity or income – then even quite mild preferences can lead to marked social segregation.
Note:MA DIVERSIFICARE È UN PROBLEMA
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,240
a bureaucratic desire for tidy, segregated cities is expressed in zoning and planning
Note:IL DESIDERIO DI SEGREGAZIONE DELLA BUROCRAZIA
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,244
Recall how Jane Jacobs’s ballet of Hudson Street relied on the fact that the street was active at any time of day, because so many different kinds of people used it. In contrast, thoroughly zoned neighbourhoods are unbalanced. They are too busy at certain times, deathly quiet at others
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,264
I had published a study which showed that messy streets lead to greater intolerance. In a messy environment, people are more likely to resort to stereotypes of others…But within a few months of publication, social psychologists received some unsettling news: Diederik Stapel was a fraud….
Note:CASINO E INTOLLERANZA… L’ORDINE CI RENDE PIÙ BUONI? UNO STUDIO FRADOLENTO
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,292
Stapel, the newspaper reported, ‘had been frustrated by the messiness of experimental data, which rarely led to clear conclusions’. His lifelong obsession with elegance and order, he said, led him to concoct sexy results
Note:L’EDITORE VOLEVA RISULTATI CHIARI
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,294
It was a quest for aesthetics, for beauty – instead of the truth.’
Note:BELLEZZA CONTRO VERITÀ
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,300
The story of the ‘broken windows’ theory of urban decay is another example of how we instinctively overestimate the benefits of tidying up certain kinds of urban mess.
Note:BROKEN WINDOW SOPRAVVALUTATA
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,331
The truth is that social science has not been able to muster much support for the broken windows theory of policing
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,336
four factors seemed to explain the timing, extent and geographical pattern of the fall in crime: more police; a larger prison population (this may deter crime, and will also prevent crimes because would-be criminals are locked up); the waning of an epidemic of crack use; and the legalisation of abortion in the 1970s,
Note | Location: 3,338
LEVITT... FATTORI PIÙ INFLUENTI
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,351
Thacher is right – certain kinds of mess are worth tidying up for their own sake. But it’s striking how easily we fall for the old-fashioned idea that ‘cleanliness is next to godliness’
Note:BIAS: DISORDINE => MALE
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,362
Sampson and Raudenbush conducted a survey of thousands of Chicago residents, asking them about their own perceptions of disorder…Then they compared the subjective perceptions…with the objective observations…
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,368
Neighbourhoods with many poor families, or with a high proportion of African American residents, or both, were perceived as being more disordered…If we want to predict whether a city block’s residents think that it’s a mess, we would learn more from looking at data on race and poverty…
Note:POVERTÀ SCAMBIATA PER DISORDINE
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,383
Academics with Jewish ancestry found their careers in ruins. The best of them left, seeking less intolerant cultures in Britain and the United States. A torment for those that fled, this policy was also a self-inflicted wound. German science was crippled. Despite a formidable industrial base and engineering tradition, Germany was unable to keep pace with the innovations that emerged from Britain and the United States – often from the very people who had been driven out.
Note:LA RICERCA DEPURATA DAGLI EBREI
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,391
he compared it to the impact of bombing raids on university departments during the war. He found the damage from losing Jewish or dissident scientists was far greater and longer lasting than the damage to offices or laboratory facilities.
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,407
Ottaviano and Peri found that cities which hosted a complex patchwork of nationalities prospered as a result.
Yellow highlight | Location: 3,419
Recall that Katherine Phillips and her colleagues found that small student groups disliked having a stranger in their midst, even as the stranger was helping them solve the murder-mystery problem they faced.
IL CORPO ESTRANEO