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IS GOD IN THE LAB?-The Scientist as Rebel (New York Review Books (Paperback)) by Freeman Dyson

Prendiamo due scienziati di vaglia per illustrare due modi molto differenti do vedere il legame tra fede e scienza.

Feynman e la religione: a lui interessava come la fede interagisce sul modo di fare ricerca…

… Feynman’s voice and personality come through clearly. He talks about real people and their problems, not about philosophical abstractions. He is interested in religion as a way for people to make sense of their lives, but he is not interested in theology…

Polkingkorne e la religione: a lui interessava il raccordo sostanziale tra dottrina cristiana e teorie della scienza…

… Polkinghorne has the opposite bias. He is a scientist who is also an ordained minister of the Church of England. To be ordained, he went through formal training in theology. For him, theology is as real and as serious as science…

P: religione e scienza come portatrici di ordine nella conoscenza…

… Polkinghorne has the opposite bias. He is a scientist who is also an ordained minister of the Church of England. To be ordained, he went through formal training in theology. For him, theology is as real and as serious as science…

P fa un parallelo tra due lotte per la verità nei due ambiti (scienza e fede): 1) meccanica quantistica e 2) la reale natura di Gesù…

… Polkinghorne compares two historic intellectual struggles, one from science and one from religion. From science he takes the discovery and development of quantum mechanics, a struggle that has lasted from the beginning to the end of the twentieth century. From religion he takes the theological understanding of the nature of Jesus, a struggle that lasted from the time when Saint Paul was writing his letters shortly after Jesus’ death to the modern era of diverse views and diminished certainties…

Per P. la conoscenza è unica…

… Polkinghorne argues from the detailed concordance of the two struggles that science and theology are two aspects of a single intellectual adventure. He sees theology as dealing with God in essentially the same way as science is dealing with nature…

Obiezione a P: forse non distingue al meglio tra parole e cose. Le prime dipendono dalla cultura, le seconde dalla natura…

… To share it, you must disregard a crucial difference between science and theology. When all is said and done, science is about things and theology is about words. Things behave in the same way everywhere, but words do not. Quantum mechanics works equally in all countries and in all cultures…

Trinità e Incarnazione sono parole senza senso in Giappone

… If you have not grown up in Polkinghorne’s culture, where words such as “incarnation” and “trinity” have a profound meaning, you cannot share his vision…

***

Per F. la religione è una stampella psicologica da rispettare…

… Feynman has no interest in scholastic arguments. He is concerned only with human problems. He has a deep respect for religion, because he sees it as helping people to behave well toward one another and to be brave in facing tragedy…

F: lo studente che crede soffre nel rapportarsi con la scienza, lui lo constata in prima persona insegnando fisica…

… He writes about students who come to college from homes where religious belief is strong, and then find that exposure to modern science is calling their beliefs into question. He has seen at first hand the anguish that some of these students experience…

Il credente tocca con mano un conflitto genuino da ricomporre.

La riconciliazione è possibile ma è una prova in più per il credente a cui deve riservare energie cognitive impiegabili altrove…

… Most Christian believers are able to reconcile their general belief in God and in the teachings of Jesus with a considerable skepticism about details…

***

Tra religione e scienza c’è probabilmente anche una filiazione storica. Solo il cristianesimo possiede una teologia analitica

… It is a curious accident of history that the Christian religion became heavily involved with theology. No other religion finds it necessary to formulate elaborately precise statements about the abstract qualities and relationships of gods and humans. There is nothing analogous to theology in Judaism or in Islam. I do not know much about Hinduism and Buddhism, but my Asian friends tell me that these religions also have no theology. They have beliefs and stories and ceremonies and rules…

La teologia cristiana, abituando al pensiero analitico, è la madre di molta scienza. Questo spiegherebbe perché la scienza è fiorita soprattutto nei paesi cristiani…

… The prominence of theology in the Christian world has had two important consequences for the history of science. On the one hand, Western science grew out of Christian theology. It is probably not an accident that modern science grew explosively in Christian Europe and left the rest of the world behind. A thousand years of theological disputes nurtured the habit of analytical thinking that could also be applied to the analysis of natural phenomena…

Senonché, oggi, la teologia potrebbe essere vista come un ingombro

… On the other hand, the close historical relations between theology and science have caused conflicts between science and Christianity that do not exist between science and other religions…. Polkinghorne writes books to prove to himself and to us that his theology and his science can live together harmoniously…

La teologia aggiunge: può essere vista sia come un ingombro che come il tentativo di rispondere a domande ulteriori.

Tuttavia, una cosa è certa: Gesù era un sapiente e la conoscenza è sempre stata ben vista nella tradizione cristiana…

… The Bible story tells us that when Jesus was twelve years old and his family was visiting Jerusalem, he seized the opportunity to spend three days talking with the learned doctors in the Temple, and all that heard him were astonished at his understanding. Whether that story is true or not, he must have had many opportunities to sharpen his understanding by talking with the learned doctors in Zippori….

Cafarnao. Un centro di pescatori illetterati? No, un centro di cultura greca…

… After visiting Capernaum, I no longer think of Peter and Andrew as simple fishermen. I think of them as young men about town, who made a living by fishing but were also immersed in the Greek culture of the city. ..

Gesù era uomo colto

… Jesus was no simple peasant, but grew up in intimate contact with an urban and overwhelmingly Greek culture…

San Paolo era uomo colto…

… the man who took charge of the new religion, Saint Paul of Tarsus, was a thoroughly Hellenized Jew. Saint Paul preached to the learned men of Athens in their own language. In his writings he laid the foundations for what became orthodox Christian doctrine…

Si fa presto allora a parlare di raccordo tra scienza e fede. Il cristianesimo, per esempio, può essere vissuto in due modi completamente diversi. Il termine “religione” non ne coglie la complessità…

… This history has left Western civilization with a strangely divided legacy. On the one hand, the religion of Jesus as we find it in his teachings recorded in the gospels, a religion for ordinary people trying to find their way in a harsh world. On the other hand, the theology that turned the Christian religion into a demanding intellectual discipline, a breeding ground for scholars and ultimately for scientists. Feynman is writing about the first, Polkinghorne about the second…

Tra gli evangelisti solo Giovanni omaggia l’ approccio intellettualistico. Sarà soprattutto la teologia successiva a celebrarlo…

… The fourth gospel, the Gospel of Saint John, shows us a very different Jesus, much more Greek in spirit…

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